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Animals end to extinction

By Naseem Alzu’bi

All extinct species are an important and exciting topic in our world today. With the developments of human globalization, endangered animals have become widespread and pose a severe and effective challenge to life. a

_Biology has defined extinct animals as the end of an entire type of living organisms. They are animals that are no longer on the face of the Earth. The moment of extinction lies in the death of the last individual of this type of animal and, thus, the absence of other individuals capable of reproducing and creating a new generation capable of  Continuity. Extinction results from several reasons, the most important of which is massive human exploitation, whether for trade or as a source of food, as well as some other biological reasons. This extinction may occur in large numbers of the same type of organisms simultaneously, called mass extinction.

_Methods to preserve animals from extinction There are many methods that a person can follow to protect the lives of animals and not expose them to the risk of extinction, and among these methods are the following:

  • Awareness and education: Spreading awareness and educating people about the species of animals threatened with extinction is extremely important, especially about animals close to humans and in the surrounding environment. Every person in human societies must know about animals at risk of extinction, such as The birds and fish they consume for food without knowing that they are in danger of extinction. This step is essential, as knowledge about these matters will push many to change their behaviour and habits.
  • Recycling: It is one of the means through which humans can contribute to stopping animals from becoming extinct. Many of the goods humans use are often manufactured after taking them from the animal itself or the habitats in which it lives. In both cases, this manufacturing process poses a real danger to the animal.

For example, people should stop buying palm oil, as this oil is taken from the forests where tigers live, which has led to these animals losing their natural habitats.

  • Reducing the use of pesticides and chemicals. People should reduce the use of agricultural chemical pesticides, as they are dangerous pollutants. These substances often take a long time to decompose, and they can permeate the soil and affect all parts of the food chain.
  • Planting trees: Tree planting operations contribute to preserving the lives of many animals, as they provide food and housing for various types of animals. Areas of trees, shrubs, and grasses have always been considered natural habitats in which many animals gather, such as insects, birds, and other species.

Encouraging people to plant any tree would bring back life to many endangered animals.

  • Reducing water consumption: Excessive use of water, especially during the dry season, to irrigate farms and gardens is something that would endanger the lives of many wild animals, as it contributes significantly to changing the nature of the habitats in which these animals are accustomed to a particular lifestyle, so the less, The more water people use, the better for many animals.
  • Stay away from the black market: Some industries depend for their basic materials on what was taken from animals after they were hunted and killed illegally, such as those industries based on tortoise shells, elephant ivory, coral, tiger and bear fur, or crocodile skin. People buy these jewelry without knowing that they encourage and support the poaching of these animals, which would expose them to extinction, so care should be taken when purchasing any of these products.
  • Stay away from plastic products: Plastic materials and products have become one of the most dangerous materials for many animals, whether living in the wild or rivers, seas and oceans, especially when one of these animals swallows plastic products that cause them to die. We must stay away from the use of plastic products and replace them.  With products that are biodegradable in soil or water and do not harm other living organisms.

_Reasons why animals are vulnerable to extinction: Many reasons could lead to the extinction of animals, perhaps the most important of which are the following:

  • Meteor strikes: Meteor strikes on Earth were the first reason that led to the disappearance of dinosaurs approximately 65 million years ago, and they were also the reason for the disappearance and extinction of many animals throughout the ages.
  • Climate change: Climate change on the surface of the Earth often threatens some animals’ existence. In the past, the massive rise in temperatures affected many mammals that could not adapt to that heat and lacked food and hunting, so they were doomed to death. Currently, it represents a phenomenon. Global warming is a significant problem that threatens the lives of animals.
  • Diseases: Diseases, lack of food, and loss of habitat often reduce the genetic diversity of animals, as the spread of a particular disease or virus among animals would wipe out large numbers, such as fungal disease that infects the skin of frogs, leading to the death of many of them.
  • Loss of natural habitats: To live correctly, animals need an appropriate amount of land to carry out their daily activities, such as eating, breeding, and movement. These spaces differ depending on the species of animals. Some are satisfied with having a small nest in trees, and some need large areas. For living.  The existence of natural habitats has become difficult, especially with humans’ constant desire for urban expansion at the expense of these habitats, which has threatened the lives of many animals and made them vulnerable to extinction.
  • Lack of genetic diversity: Lack of genetic diversity often leads to the disappearance of some breeds or certain types of animals, especially when there are no partners available for them from similar species, exposing them to the risk of inbreeding, which often contains undesirable characteristics, which lead to contracting a fatal disease.
  • Lack of food: Food is the main reason for animal extinction, especially since many animals suffer from hunger and have nothing to feed on. This reason is more deadly than diseases or predation.
  • Pollution: Pollution is one of the main reasons that contribute to the extinction of animals or the decline in their numbers, as many land or aquatic animals are susceptible to the toxic chemicals left by humans, whether in land areas or seas, oceans, and rivers.
  • Poaching: Illegal poaching of animals to obtain money was and still is the main factor in the disappearance of many animal species, and in many regions of the world, it has even led to the disappearance of entire breeds.

_Endangered animals: There is a group of animals that need to be protected from extinction, as there are currently approximately 41,415 species on the IUCN Red List, of which 16,306 species are threatened with extinction, and this is on the rise compared to previous years, as these species are classified as threatened with extinction if  Their numbers have decreased by 50% to 70%.  Below are the ten most endangered species.

  1. Gorillas: Gorillas are among the beautiful creatures that share approximately 93% of their DNA with humans. They can feel emotions and sometimes share the same behaviours with us, even laughing. There are two main types of eastern and western gorillas. Still, 3 out of every four individuals are classified as  On the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The decline in their numbers is primarily due to overhunting, habitat loss, and disease, in addition to being one of the animals that recover most slowly. It also has a low reproductive rate, as females give birth once every 4 to 6 years, meaning the female may reproduce—only three or four times during her life.
  2. Rhinoceros: The rhinoceros is subject to poaching because of its distinctive nose used in traditional Chinese medicine. In addition to being used as a symbol of wealth and proof of status, it has a very high value, as one kilogram of Javanese rhinoceros horn is sold on the black market for approximately $30,000. For this reason, 3  Among the five species of rhinoceros that are threatened with extinction in the world: (the black rhinoceros.  Javan rhinoceros.  Sumatran rhinoceros. ) The Javan rhinoceros is the most endangered species, and its number currently ranges between 46 and 66 individuals, all of whom live in Ujung Kulon National Park in Indonesia.
  3. Blue Whale: Blue whales are among the largest animals on planet Earth.  However, there are currently less than 25,000 whales worldwide, as they live in all oceans except the Arctic. Their number has decreased by up to 90% due to overfishing in the twentieth century and the risk of colliding with ships and falling into fishing nets.
  4. Giant Panda: The giant panda is one of the most attractive animals. Everyone loves the panda for its cute external appearance, and it is one of the animals threatened with extinction, so environmental conservation societies have called for supporting projects to preserve and protect it. However, the biggest threat to the giant panda is humans, habitat destruction, and its exposure to famine.  Its number in its native country, China, reached 2,500 individuals.
  5. The Siberian tiger: It is believed that overhunting the Siberian tiger is the greatest threat to its life due to the prevailing belief that its bones and organs have magical healing powers, in addition to cutting down trees, burning them, and reducing the number of habitats for such animals that need large grassy areas to feed, as in 2014 there remained less than 4  Thousands of tigers in the wild;  China thus banned the poaching and consumption of endangered animals.
  6. The Asian elephant: The number of Asian elephants is approximately 40 to 50 thousand distributed over 13 countries, and their number may decrease. 50% of Asian elephants live in India and other parts of Asia, which creates conflicts over space and resources. Although their tusks are small compared to their African counterparts, they are still hunted for ivory, meat, and hides.
  7. Snow leopard: The snow leopard is a felid inhabiting mountain ranges but is more closely related to tigers. About 6,500 tigers remain in the wild, most of which are found in China and Mongolia, although they are also abundant in India and Kyrgyzstan. They feed on blue sheep, mountain ibex, and some domestic animals, and poaching poses a significant threat to the snow leopard’s survival.

_Ways to protect animals from extinction: There are several ways to protect animals from extinction, the most important of which are:

  1. Individual efforts: There are a set of simple steps that individuals can follow to help protect organisms from extinction, and among these steps are:
  • Spreading awareness among people about the types of these animals, how to protect them, and the importance of preserving them. This is done through institutions concerned with the environment and various educational institutions.
  •  Visit natural reserves that are concerned with protecting these types of creatures and contribute to protecting their whereabouts.  You can join these reserves through volunteer work and thus obtain sufficient information about them. 
  • Do not buy products made from these animals, such as leather and fur; the demand for these products increases hunters’ eagerness to kill them.
  • preserving the surrounding environment so these endangered creatures have a safe environment and wildlife.  For example, it is possible to reduce the cutting of trees, not to throw waste in forests, and to preserve water sources.
  1. Institutional efforts: Institutions and official bodies concerned with wildlife must begin by listing endangered species and determining the causes of their extinction, then start taking steps to protect them. The most important of these methods are:
  • Setting initial goals and plans. 
  • Biologists consider the causes of extinction and whether reducing threats to their livelihoods, such as hunting, is possible.
  • Propose some plans to protect these animals and take the opinions of biologists and specialists in  So.
  • monitor these endangered animal species constantly.
  1. Preventing poaching: Authorities concerned with preserving wildlife must use practical methods and steps to protect animals. The most prominent of these methods are the following:
  • imposing a deterrent punishment for anyone who practices it and considering it a crime for which he will be held accountable according to the law. This punishment includes imprisonment or payment of sums of money. 
  • Non-profit organizations (in countries where poaching is common) promote alternative and more sustainable ways of making money, such as in countries in Africa and Asia, due to the large number of traders who make a living from poaching.
  • Reducing people’s demand for illegal products originating from wildlife;  If a product is not available legally, it is prohibited to obtain it illegally.
  1. Protecting forests: Forests, in general, can be protected by applying the steps described below: 
  • Developing mechanisms capable of reducing unsustainable hunting practices.
  • Strengthening sustainable wild meat utilization management, That is, the meat of animals that live in forests. 
  • Providing specialized organizations technical assistance to enhance their capabilities in dealing with wildlife conflicts.
  • Cross-border cooperation and developing the management of protected areas.
  • Designing and implementing projects and initiatives related to the protection of animal forests.
  1. Providing a suitable environment for animals: A suitable environment for animals is a place that includes all the factors they need to survive, such as light, water, food, shelter, and an appropriate place for reproduction. A suitable environment for animals can be provided as follows:
  • permanently preserving the animals’ environment in national parks, nature reserves, and wild areas, with people being allowed to visit them where they are located, provided that strict laws and regulations are put in place that prohibit harming them or the place where they are located.
  •  Permanently preserving the animals’ environment on farms by fencing areas designated for animals and searching for alternatives to poisoning and shooting used to control animals. In addition, dead trees should be left in place because animals use them to nest and protect themselves from predators.
  •  Survey the land before purchasing it to ensure that it is not a habitat for animals.
  •  Preventing fires in forests, such as cigarette and campfires.
  1. Exploiting the idea of ​​artificial inheritance to preserve the biological diversity of animals and protect them from the risk of extinction. The concept of ​​artificial inheritance, which means storing the inherited genes of animals threatened with extinction, can be exploited and exploited in light of industrial and technological development through the following: 
  • storing biological samples of animals in biobanks as a precaution. This preserves their diversity and prevents them from extinction by restoring their genes and helping them reproduce.
  • Employing genomics, which includes improving DNA and collecting it from different environments, to obtain the genomes of other extinct species.
  •  Reducing the incidence of diseases and infections in animals that lead to death by employing biosynthetic technology that can neutralize diseases that decimate wildlife.

_It is very important to know that every type of organism that lives on Earth has a role in achieving environmental balance, and therefore, the death of one of these organisms leads to the loss of an essential link in the ecosystem, resulting in disruption.

The extinction of animals causes significant changes in the ecosystem due to a change in the food chain. Ultimately, this will affect humans because they are members of the ecosystem, so it is necessary to preserve endangered animals.

All modern environmental studies have proven that more than half of the animal species present on the surface of the Earth will become extinct due to human actions. Therefore, the state must join hands to place these animals in natural reserves and criminalize the hunting of these animals.


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